计算机重要概念

A.M. Turing Award
:
图灵奖,计算机领域的最高奖项。
Abnormal End
:
异常退出
Absolute Address
:
绝对地址
Absolute Path
:
绝对路径
Abstract Data Type (ADT)
:
抽象数据类型
Access Control List (ACL)
:
访问控制表
Accumulator
:
累加器
Accuracy
:
精确度
ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability)
:
ACID (原子性,一致性,隔离性,持久性)
ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)
:
计算机协会
Acyclic Graph
:
非循环图

A graph that does not have graph cycles.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
:
地址解析协议
Adjacency Matrix (or Connectivity Matrix)
:
邻接矩阵

A matrix used to represent a graph.

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
:
高级加密标准
Agile Development
:
敏捷开发

An approach to software development that is iterative, adaptive, and responsive to particular needs of clients.

Algebra
:
代数

An area that studies mathematical properties of data and operations on data.

Align
:
对齐
Alphanumeric Characters
:
字母和数字字符
Android
:
安卓操作系统

A smartphone operating system based on the Linux kernel.

ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
:
美国国家标准学会
Antivirus Software
:
杀毒软件
Application Programming Interface (API)
:
应用程序接口

A set of methods or protocols that define communication between two modules/components.

Approximation Solution
:
近似解
Archive
:
归档

A set of data that users wish to retain, but without requiring immediate access.

Argument
:
参数
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
:
算术逻辑单元

The part of a computer system that actually performs calculations and logical comparisons.

Array
:
数组

A basic data structure that stores a collection of data in same type in consecutive order.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
:
人工智能

A sub-area of computer science that studies the intelligence demonstrated by machines.

ASCII
:
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP)
:
面向方面编程
Assembly Language
:
汇编语言

A human-readable notation for the convenient representation of machine codes.

Assignment
:
赋值
Associative Array
:
关联数组

A data structure that associates pairs of data within an array.

Asynchronous Javascript and XML (Ajax)
:

A method that allows web pages to interact with backend.

Atomic Action
:
原子操作

A sequence of primitive operations that must complete without interruption.

Attachment
:
附件
Authentication
:
鉴权

A process by which two parties in a communication can assure each other of their identities.

Automata Theory
:
自动机理论

A type of height-balanced trees.

Backdoor
:
后门

A way that an individual can gain access to a system without passing the normal login process.

Backend
:
后端

Processing at backend opposed to Frontend at users' clients.

Background Processing
:
后台处理

Processing without interaction with users.

Backup
:
备份
Backus-Naur Form (BNF)
:
巴科斯-诺尔范式

A form that precisely describes the grammar of a computer language.

Bandwidth
:
带宽

The range of frequencies that a communication medium can effectively transmit.

Barcode
:
条形码

A printed machine-readable code that consists of parallel bars of varied width and spacing.

Batch Processing
:
批处理
Bayesian Analysis
:
贝叶斯分析
BBS (Bulletin Board System)
:
论坛
Benchmark
:

A tool used to evaluate or compare the performance of systems or applications.

Bidirectional
:
双向的
Big O Notation
:

A mathematical notation that describes the behavior of algorithms.

Big-endian
:
大端字节序

An addressing organization, in which the smallest numerical byte address is located at the most significant position.

Binary File
:
二进制文件
Binary Search Algorithm
:
二分查找算法

A tree in which each node has at most two subtrees.

Bioinformatics
:
生物信息学
BIOS (Basic Input-Output System)
:
基本输入输出系统

The basic input-output system on a computer system.

Bipartite Graph
:
二分图

A graph whose vertices can be split into two disjoint sets.

Bitmaps
:
位图

A bitmap is a series of bits in which the bits represent a speicific data.

Bitwise Operations
:
位操作

Bitwise operations consist of logical operators and shift operators that work on bits.

Blackbox Testing
:
黑盒测试

A testing method that only considers the inputs and the outputs of a tested module.

Block Device
:
块设备
Block Diagram
:
框图
Blue-Green Deployment
:
蓝绿发布

A deployment strategy that minimizes the down time of services.

Bluetooth
:
蓝牙

A wireless data communications designed for relatively short-range data transmission.

Boolean
:
布尔
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
:
BGP边界网关协议

The routing protocol used to connect autonomous systems on the Internet.

Bottleneck
:
瓶颈
Bottom Up
:
自底向上
Boundary Value
:
边界值
Branching Statements
:
分支语句

Branching statements give programs the ability to choose one execution from many logic paths depending on a logical test.

Breadth-First Search
:
宽度优先查找

A technique of searching through a tree whereby all nodes at level n are searched before searching any nodes at level n+1.

Broadcast
:
广播
Brute Force
:
暴力破解法

An approach to solving a problem by trying every possible solution.

Buffer Overflow
:
缓冲区溢出

A type of vulnerability where data written to a buffer excceds the size of the buffer.

Bus
:
总线

A pathway for data to flow between CPU, Main memory, and various devices.

C
:
C编程语言

A general-purpose programming language.

C# (pronounced "C sharp")
:
C#编程语言

A general-purpose programming language designed by Microsoft.

C++ (pronounced "C Plus Plus")
:
C++编程语言

A general-purpose programming language designed by Bjarne Stroustrup.

CA (Certificate Authority)
:
证书颁发机构

An agency that issues digital certificates.

Cache
:
高速缓存

An area of relatively fast access memory for data anticipated to be reused in near futre.

Captcha
:

A technique used to prevent bots from login to web service intended for human users.

CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart)
:

A tool that presents a quiz that is easy for human, but difficult for automatic BOT.

Catalog
:

A repository of metadata in database.

Certificate
:
证书
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
:
通用网关接口

An interface that allows Web browsers to interact with programs at a web site.

Character Device
:
字符设备
Checksum
:
校验和
Child Process
:
子进程
Circular Linked List
:
循环链表
Class
:

A data type that encapsulates data and operations at one place.

Client-Server Computing
:
客户端-服务端计算模型

A computing model that consists of client and server programs.

Cloud Computing
:
云计算

An approach of computing in which end users connect to remote computers for running programs or storing data in cloud.

Cluster
:
集群

A group of similar devices connected together in order to provide enhanced performance, security, or resilience to failure.

CMM (Capability Maturity Model)
:
能力成熟度模型

A set of criteria for judging and improving the performance of a software development organization.

Code Generator
:
代码生成器
Code Review
:
代码检视
Cognitive Science
:
认知科学

Cognitive science is a study of mental processes, such as reasoning, memory, and the processing of perception.

Cold boot, Cold start
:
冷启动
COM (Component Object Model)
:
组件对象模型

A programming interface provided by Microsoft systems.

Commit
:
提交

An action that reliably submits all pending changes in a tranction and makes them visible to end users.

Compatibility
:
兼容性
Compiler
:
编译器

A program that converts source codes of a programming language into an equivalent program written in another language.

Complexity Theory
:
复杂度理论

A study of the time and amount of memory needed to perform a computation or an algorithm.

Computer Architecture
:
计算机体系结构
Computer Ethics
:
计算机伦理

A study of resposible use of computers and computer networks.

Computer Forensics
:
计算机取证

A process of discovering, documenting, analyzing, and preserving criminal evidence by using computers.

Computer Security
:
计算机安全

A study of protecting computers from being tampered, physically damaged, and unwanted data disclosure.

Computer Virus
:
计算机病毒

A program that may destroy the regular processing of a computer system.

Concurrency
:
并发

The progressing of two or more activities in parallel.

Confidentiality
:
保密

Rules and procedures that prevent unauthorized persons from gaining access to information.

Constructor
:
构造函数
Context Awareness
:
上下文感知

The ability of being aware of specific information from external systems.

Context-free Language
:
上下文无关语言

The formal languages generated by a context-free grammar or equivalent forms.

Copyleft
:

A copyright that gives permissions for redistribution under certain conditions.

Copyright
:
版权

A legal restriction to the reproduction of books, magazines, computer programs or other materials in order to protect the ownership of the original author.

Cost Estimation Model
:
成本估算模型

A mathematical model used for estimating the overall cost of building a project or software.

Coupling
:
耦合

A measurement of the strength of interconnections between modules in a system.

Crash
:
程序崩溃

A sudden failure of a program caused by a hardware or software error.

CRLF(Carriage Return, Line Feed)
:
回车换行
Cross Compiler
:
交叉编译器

A compiler that runs on one machine, but produces an object program to run on a different machine.

Cross-Platform
:
跨平台
Cryptography
:
加密学
Cursor
:
光标
Cyberspace
:
网络空间
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
:
循环冗余校验
Daemon
:
守护进程
Data Center
:
数据中心
Data Compression/Data Compaction
:
数据压缩

A process that removes redundant information from data and saves space.

Data Encryption Standard (DES)
:
数据加密标准

A cipher developed by IBM and standardized by the US National Bureau of Standards in 1977.

Data Integrity
:
数据完整性

A condition in which all data values are correct.

Data Mining
:
数据挖掘

A process to find useful information by analyzing data.

Data Partitioning
:
数据切分
Data Structure
:
数据结构

A way of organizing data in a computer system.

Data Warehouse
:
数据仓库
Database
:
数据库

A system that maintains data by using a collection of facilities.

Database Management System (DBMS)
:
数据库管理系统

A database management system consists of a database and facilities for managing data.

DDoS(Distributed Denial of Service)
:
分布式拒绝服务攻击

A DoS (Denial of Service) attach is conducted by attackers from a widely distributed locations.

Deadlock
:
死锁

A situation where resources are held by two or more processes; each is waiting for resources held by others. So that all of them are in an infinite wait loop.

Debugger
:
调试器
Declarative Programming
:
声明式编程
Decryption
:
解密
Denial of Service (DoS)
:
拒绝服务攻击

The prevention of an authorized user from processing information.

Depth-first Search
:
深度优先搜索

A way of search that first visits connected nodes rather than sibling nodes.

Design by Contract
:
契约式设计
Design Pattern
:
设计模式

A way to abstract and generalize data and logic so that it can be applied to similar problems in future.

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
:
动态主机设置协议

A protocol that allows devices in a network to configure their operational parameters automatically.

Dictionary Attack
:
字典攻击

An attempt to obtain a password by looking up words in a dictionary.

Digital Signature
:
数字签名

An authentication code appended to a file that indicates the author of the file.

Directed Graph
:
有向图
Distributed Computing
:
分布式计算

A way of running programming or storing data across a number of different computers.

Distributed Database
:
分布式数据库
Divide and Conquer Algorithm
:
分治算法
DLL (Dynamic Link Library)
:
动态链接库
DMA (Direct Memory Access)
:
直接内存访问技术

A method whereby I/O processes can obtain access to memory without interrupting CPU.

DML (Database Manipulation Language)
:
数据操纵语言
Document Object Model (DOM)
:
文档对象模型

A way to represent a Web document as an object that can be manipulated by a scripting language.

Domain Name System (DNS)
:
域名服务系统

The domain name system provides alphabetical equivalents to the numeric IP addresses.

A linked list where each node contains links to both its predecessor and its successor.

Downward Compatibility
:
向下兼容
DRAM (Dynamic Random-Access Memory)
:
动态随机存取内存
Driver
:
驱动程序

A program that handles peripheral devices in operating systems.

Dual-Core Processor
:
双核处理器
Dynamic IP Address
:
An IP address assigned to a computer when it actually connects to a network.
Dynamic Programming
:
动态规划
Edge Computing
:
边缘计算

A distributed computing paradigm that brings data closer to the location where it is needed.

Embedded System
:
嵌入式系统

The systems used as component in devices whose primary functions are not that of systems.

Emulation
:
仿真

The exact execution on a given computer of a program written for a different computer.

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)
:
EPS
Encapsulation
:
封装

A method that promotes the program reliability by keeping the detailed implementation private.

Encryption
:
加密

A process of rendering data in a specific way in which only authrized users understand.

End-Of-File (EOF) Mark
:
文件结尾标识符

A symbol that indicates the end of a file.

EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
:
可擦写可编程只读存储器

A type of memory that can be programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light.

Escaped Character
:
转义字符

A character that changes the meaning of another character immediately following.

Event-Driven Programming
:
事件驱动编程
Exact Solution
:
精确解
Exception Handling
:
异常处理
Executable File
:
可执行文件
Expert Systems
:

A computer program that uses knowledge and rules of reasoning to solve problems.

Factorial
:
阶乘
Failure Recovery
:
失败恢复

A procedure that allows a restart of a failed system in order to eliminate or minimize the amount of incorrect results.

FAT32 (File Allocation Table, 32 bit)
:
FAT32 文件系统

A type of file system introduced by Windows 98.

Fault Tolerance
:
容错

Fault telerance is a design concept, in which a system will continue to work even if one or more components fail.

File Sharing
:
文件共享
File System
:
文件系统
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
:
文件传输协议
Fingerprint Reader
:
指纹阅读器

A device that identifies users by detecting their fingerprint patterns.

Finite-State Machine
:
有限状态机
Firewall
:
防火墙

A firewall is a program that sits between a computer and the Internet, and protects the computer from attacks.

Firmware
:
固件
First-In-First-Out (FIFO)
:
先进先出
Float
:
浮点数
Flowchart
:
流程图
FPS (Frames Per Second)
:
每秒帧数

The rate at which a moving image is generated.

Frontend
:
前端
Full Duplex
:
全双工

Communication in two directions at the same time.

Full Stack Developer
:
全栈工程师

Engineers who have a full set of skills needed in web development.

Full Text Search
:
全文搜索

An action of searching through every word in a set of documents.

Functional Programming
:
函数式编程
Gargage Collection
:
垃圾收集
Gateway
:
网关

A device that interconnects two networks.

GPU (Graphical Processing Unit)
:
图形处理单元
Grammar Checker
:
语法检查器

A program that finds sentences that violate grammar rules.

Graph Theory
:
图论
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
:
图形用户接口

An interface between users and a computer that makes use of input devices other than the keyboard and presentation techniques other than alphanumeric characters.

Greed Algorithm
:
贪心算法
Grid Computing
:
网格计算
GUID (Globally Unique Identifier)
:
全局唯一标识符
Hacker
:
黑客
Half Duplex
:
半双工

Communication in two directions, but not at the same time.

Handshaking
:
握手

The exchange of signals between two computers over networks

Hash Function
:
哈希函数

A function that enables rapid searching or table lookup.

Hash Table
:
哈希表
Heap
:

An area of memory for dynamic allocation.

Heuristic
:
启发式算法

A method that uses domain knowledge as hints in problem solving

Human-Computer Interaction
:
人机交互
IA-32 (Intel Architecture-32)
:
英特尔32位CPU体系结构

The architecture of the Intel 80386, 80486, and Pentium microprocessors.

IA-64 (Intel Architecture-64)
:
英特尔64位CPU体系结构

The architecture of the 64-bit Intel microprocessors.

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
:
电气电子工程师学会
Image Processing
:
图片处理

An area that studies the manipulation of digitized images.

Imperative Programming
:
命令式编程
Incremental Backup
:
增量备份
Indexed File
:
索引文件
Information Theory
:
信息论

An area of studing the fundamental characteristics of information and its transmission and reception.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
:
基础设施即服务
Inheritance
:
继承

A way of sharing data and functions in object-oriented programming language.

Integrated Circuit (IC)
:
集成电路
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
:
集成开发环境
Intellectual Property
:
知识产权

Intellectual property is a right the creator of an original work has to control its use or distribution.

Internet
:
互联网

Internet is the worldwide network that connects all computers in the world.

Internet of Things (IoT)
:
物联网
Internet Service Provider
:
网络服务提供商

Organizations that provide access to the Internet.

Interpreted Language
:
解释型语言
Interpreter
:
解释器

Interpreter is a program that analyzes programming instructions, creates equavalent executable programs and executes them.

Interrupt
:
中断
Intranet
:
往往由公司或者组织建立的内部网络,从公司或者组织外部不能访问。
IPC (Inter-Process Communication)
:
进程间通信
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
:
国际标准组织
Iteration
:
The process of performing a sequence of steps repeatedly.
Java
:
Java编程语言

Java is a general-purpose programming language.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
:
Java虚拟机
JavaScript
:
JavaScript编程语言

JavaScript is a script language that can run in Web browsers and enable interactions with users.

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
:
JSON

An open standard format of data represetation.

JDK (Java Development Kit)
:
Java开发工具集
JIT Compiler (Just-In-Time Compiler)
:

A software that translates a segment of codes into machine codes for performance improvement.

Jitter
:
抖动

A variation in the arrival time of a synchronous signal.

Journaling File System
:
日志文件系统
Kernel
:
内核

Kernel is the core program of an operating system. A Kernel program provides process control, interprocess communication, memory management, file system, and more.

Key-Value Pair
:
键-值对
Lambda Calculus
:
Lambda演算

A formalism for representing functions and ways of combining functions.

LEX
:

A program that generates lexical analysers.

Library
:
代码库

A collection of programs that can be reused in similar programs.

Light-weight Process
:
轻量级进程

A data structure that represents a set of data which are not necessarily stored in a continuous space.

Linker
:
链接器
LISP (LISt Processor)
:
LISP编程语言

A functional programming language.

Little-endian
:
小端字节序
Loader
:
加载器
Local Area Network (LAN)
:
局域网

A network that is only reachable from local computers.

Lossless Compression
:
无损压缩

A type of compression methods that do not loss information.

Lua
:
Lua编程语言

A scripting programming language.

Machine Learning
:
机器学习
Macro
:

A concept of packaging a group of instructions, which can be reused or invoked by a single instruction.

Maintainability
:
可维护性
Malware
:
恶意软件
Message Passing
:
消息传递

A method of parallelize computation by passing messages among processes.

Metadata
:
元数据
Microprocessor
:
微处理器

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all essential components for computing.

Middleware
:
中间件
Modularity
:
模块化
Multicore System
:
多核系统
Multitasking
:
多任务处理

A method for running several programs at the same time.

Mutex Lock
:
互斥锁
MVC (Model-View-Controller)
:
模型-视图-控制器模式
Namespace
:
命名空间
NAT (Network Address Translation)
:
网络地址转换技术
Natural Language Processing
:
自然语言处理

An area that studies the ability of processing natural language on computers.

Network Attached Storage (NAS)
:
网络附属存储设备

A dedicated data storage that is available to all users of a network.

Neural Network
:
神经网络
NoSQL Database
:
NoSQL数据库。NoSQL表示Not Only SQL。

NoSQL Database. NoSQL stands for Not Only SQL.

Object-Oriented Programming
:
面向对象编程
Open Source
:
开源代码

A concept of sharing source codes to the public.

Operating System
:
操作系统

An operating system is a program that manages hardware resource and provides a variety of services to support applications.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
:
光学字符识别

A process of identifying and recognizing characters from images.

Overclocking
:
超频
Paging
:
分页

A virtual memory management method.

Pair Programming
:
结对编程
Parallel Computing
:
并行计算

An area that studies all perspectives of computing in parallel.

Parser
:
解析器
Pattern Recognition
:
模式识别

A process of detecting the presence of a specific pattern.

Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)
:
Perl编程语言

A scripting programming language.

PHP
:
PHP编程语言

A scripting programming language primarily used for creating dynamnic Web pages.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)
:
平台即服务
Polynomial Time
:

A way of characterizing the time complexity of an algorithm.

Primary Key
:
主键
Procedural Programming
:
过程式编程
Process
:
进程
Pseudo Random Number Generation
:
伪随机数生成

An algorithm that produces random numbers by using arithmetic properties of a computer.

Python
:
Python编程语言

Python is a general-purpose programming language.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
:
独立磁盘冗余阵列
Real-time Processing
:
实时处理

Recursion is a concept of repeatedly executing a collection of program statements as long as some conditions are met.

Redirecting
:
重定向
Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)
:
精简指令集计算机
Redundancy
:
冗余

The provision of additional resources or data in a system, which is over the minimum set of resources or data needed.

Refactoring
:
重构
Reference Counting
:
引用计数
Register
:
寄存器
Regression Testing
:
回归测试
Regular Expression
:
正则表达式
Relational Database
:
关系型数据库
Relational Model
:
关系型模型
Relative Path
:
相对路径
Reverse Engineering
:
逆向工程
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
:
射频识别
RGB color Model
:
红绿蓝颜色模型

A model that presents colors by using combinations of Red, Green, and Blue.

Robotics
:
机器人学
Router
:
路由器
Routing Table
:
路由表
SAX (Simple API for XML)
:
一种解析XML文档的编程接口

A specification/method for an event-driven XML parser.

Scalability
:
可扩展性
Scalar
:
标量

A number comprising a single value opposed to a complex number or a vector.

Scanner
:
扫描器
Scheduling
:
调度算法

The method to determine which process to be executed next.

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
:
小型计算机系统接口

A standard high-speed parallel interface for connecting peripheral devices.

Search Engine
:
搜索引擎
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
:
搜索引擎优化

The process that helps to increase the qualify and quantity of website traffic.

Seek Time
:
寻道时间

THe time taken for a particular track on a storage disk or drum to be located.

Semantics
:
语义
Semaphore
:
信号量
Set
:
集合
Shared Memory
:
共享内存
Simulation
:
模拟

A linked list in which each node contains a single link to its successor.

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)
:
简单对象访问协议
Social Networking
:
社交网络
Software as a Service (SaaS)
:
软件即服务

A delivery model for software in which software is held by vendors, who undertake the delivery functions.

Software Engineering
:
软件工程
Solid-State Disk (SSD)
:
固态硬盘
Speech Recognition
:
语音识别
SQL (Structured Query Language)
:
结构化查询语言
Storage
:
存储
String
:
字符串
Subroutine
:
子程序
Synchronization
:
同步
Syntax
:
语法

A rule that defines legal sequences of symbolic elements in a language.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
:
TCP/IP协议
TDD (Test-Driven Development)
:
测试驱动开发
Thread
:
线程
Top Down
:
自顶向下
Topological Sorting
:
拓扑排序
UML (Unified Modeling Language)
:
统一建模语言
User Interface (UI)
:
用户接口
Variable
:
变量
Virtual Machine
:
虚拟机

A collection of resources that emulates the behavior of an actual machine.

Virtual Reality
:
虚拟现实
Virtualization
:
虚拟化
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
:
基于IP的语音传输
Wearable Computer
:
可穿戴计算机
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
:
所见即所得
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